The partial list of non-practicing entities featured in the NPE Tracker:

Patent Assertion Entities

Acacia

  • Website: acaciaresearch.com
  • Founded: 1992
  • Office(s): Newport Beach, CA Frisco, TX
  • Contact Information: 500 Newport Center Drive 7th Floor Newport Beach, CA 92660 Phone: (949) 480-8300 Fax: (949) 480-8301
Acacia (NASDAQ: ACTG) engages in the acquisition, development, licensing, and enforcement of patented technologies. The firm owns or controls over 250 patent portfolios in technologies ranging from medical devices and imaging techniques, to data security and wireless networks. In 2012, the firm expanded its wireless technology holdings through the acquisition of key wireless patents from Nokia Siemens Networks, and its $160 million acquisition of Adaptix – a pioneer in the 4G technology space. Acacia engages in continuous litigation over its patent portfolios, with notable mobile technology lawsuits against Apple, AT&T, Sprint and Verizon in late 2012.
Entities that use the corporate name “Acacia”:
  • Acacia Global Acquisition Corporation
  • Acacia Media Technologies Corporation
  • Acacia Media Technology Group
  • Acacia Patent Acquisition Corporation
  • Acacia Technologies Services Corporation
  • Acacia Intellectual Property Fund, L.P. (the “Acacia IP Fund”)
  • Acacia Research
Other Acacia subsidiaries are listed below. This includes data from Acacia’s historic SEC filings, litigation records, and press releases:
  • 3 Degrees, LLC
  • 3D Design Solutions LLC
  • Adaptix
  • Adjustcam LLC
  • Advanced Processor Technologies LLC
  • American Vehicular Sciences LLC
  • Apollo Patent
  • ARG Medical Solutions
  • Auto-Dimensions LLC
  • Automated Facilities Management Corporation
  • AV Technologies LLC
  • Beverage Dispensing Solutions LLC
  • Body Science LLC
  • Bolt MRI Technologies LLC
  • Bonutti Skeletal Innovations LLC
  • Brain Life, LLC
  • Brandywine Communications Technologies LLC
  • Brilliant Optical Solutions LLC
  • Broadcast Data Retrieval Corporation
  • Broadcast Innovation LLC
  • Cell & Network Selection LLC
  • Cellular Communications Equipment LLC
  • CeraMedic, LLC
  • Chalumeau Power Systems LLC
  • Computer Acceleration Corporation
  • Computer Cache Coherency Corporation
  • Computer Docking Station Corporation
  • Computer Software Protection LLC
  • Contacts Synchronization Corporation
  • Convergent Media Soilutions LLC
  • Creative Internet Advertising Corporation
  • Credit Card Fraud Control Corporation
  • Criminal Activity Surveillance, LLC
  • Database Structures Inc.
  • Database Sync Solutions LLC
  • Data Encryption Corporation
  • Data Engine Technologies LLC
  • Data Innovation LLC
  • Delaware Display Group LLC
  • Diagnostic Systems Corporation
  • Digital Security Systems Corporation
  • Disc Link Corporation
  • DN Lookups
  • DRAM Memtech LLC
  • DRAM Technologies LLC/ DRAM Memories Technologies
  • Dynamic 3D Geosolutions LLC
  • Dynamic Memory Technologies LLC
  • Dynamic Transmissions Tech, LLC
  • Email Link Corporation
  • Endotach LLC
  • EVM Systems LLC
  • Express Card Systems LLC
  • Financial Systems Innovation LLC
  • Fluid Dynamics Corporation
  • Gametek, LLC
  • GT Gaming LLC
  • High Resolution Optics Corporation
  • Hospital Systems Corporation
  • In-depth Test LLC
  • Industrial Print Technologies LLC
  • Information Technology Innovation LLC
  • Intercarrier Communications LLC
  • Innovative Display Technologies LLC
  • InternetAd LLC/ InternetAd Systems
  • IP Innovation LLC
  • KY Data Systems LLC
  • Labyrinth Optical Technologies LLC
  • Lambda Optical Solutions LLC
  • Lifeport Sciences LLC
  • Lifescreen LLC
  • Lifeshield Sciences LLC
  • Light Transformation Technologies LLC
  • Location Based Services Corporation
  • Location Based Services LLC
  • Micromesh Technology Corporation
  • Microprocessor Enhancement Corporation
  • Mobile Enhancement Solutions LLC
  • Mobile Traffic Systems Corporation
  • Navatune LLC
  • New Medium LLC/ New Medium Technologies
  • Nexus Display Technologies LLC
  • Nucleic Acid Purification Technologies LLC
  • Online News Link LLC
  • Optimum Content Protection LLC
  • O.S. Security LLC
  • Panalogin LLC
  • Parallel Processing Corporation
  • Parking Security Systems Corporation
  • Parking Space Innovations LLC
  • Parthenon Unified Memory Architecture LLC
  • Peer Communications Corporation
  • Priority Access Solutions Corporation
  • Product Activation Corporation
  • Progressive Semiconductor Solutions LLC
  • Promethean Insulation Technology LLC
  • Refined Recommendations Corporation
  • Remote Video Camera Corporation
  • Resource Scheduling Corporation
  • Safety Braking Corporation
  • Saint Lawrence Communications LLC
  • Screentone Systems Corporation
  • Secure Access Corporation
  • Signal Enhancement Technologies
  • Smartphone Technologies LLC
  • Soundview Technologies LLC
  • Spreadsheet Automation Corporation
  • Super Interconnect Technologies LLC
  • Super Resolution Technologies LLC
  • Taxvantage LLC
  • Technology Licensing Corp.
  • TechSearch LLC
  • Telematics Corporation
  • Unified Messaging Solutions, LLC
  • VData LLC
  • Vertical Analytics LLC
  • Video Streaming Solutions LLC
  • View 360 Solutions LLC
  • Web Tracking Solutions LLC
  • Wireless Mobile Devices, LLC

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Conversant IP Management

  • Website: conversantip.com
  • Founded: 1975
  • Office(s): Ottawa, ON Canada Plano, TX
  • Contact Information: 11 Hines Road Suite 203 Ottawa, ON Canada K2K 2X1 Phone: (613) 599-9539 Fax: (613) 591-8148
Conversant Intellectual Property Management (TSE:MSD) is a Canadian patent licensing and innovation firm offering IP monetization and management services to help its partners realize the full potential of their portfolios as competitive tools and sources of income. The company claims to own more than 12,000 patents and applications, created through its own innovation and active acquisition and partnering programs. Building on its history in semiconductor memory, Conversant has broadened its interests into wireless, microprocessors, networking, semiconductor manufacturing, hybrid-electric automotive IP and more. Previously named Mosaid, the company began its licensing program for DRAM technology in the late 1990s and has since signed licensing agreements with numerous large semiconductor and wireless companies, including Fujitsu, NEC, Toshiba, Nokia, Panasonic, Samsung, and LG. More recently, Conversant has provided IP monetization services to Nokia, Microsoft, Micron Technologies and others.
Entities that use the corporate name “Mosaid”:
  • Mosaid Technologies
  • Mosaid Corporation
Other Mosaid subsidiaries and partners are listed below. This includes data from Mosaid’s website and press releases:
  • Core Wireless Licensing
  • Longitude Licensing LTD

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Intellectual Ventures

  • Website: intellectualventures.com
  • Founded: 2000
  • Office(s): Bellevue, WA Los Altos, CA Las Vegas, NV Wilmington, DE
  • Contact Information: 3150 139th Ave SE Building 4 Bellevue, WA 98005 Phone: (425) 467-2300
Intellectual Ventures is a privately held patent licensing and enforcement firm founded in 2000 by former Microsoft employees, Nathan Myhrvold and Edward Jung. The company is one of the largest patent holders in the United States, with roughly 40,000 patents in its portfolio. Intellectual Ventures obtains its patents through patent auctions, bankruptcy sales, and turnkey licensing contracts with smaller companies. In addition to aggressive licensing and litigation, Intellectual Ventures also offers its patents as defensive IP to notable investors like Verizon and Microsoft. Notable actions in 2012 include Intellectual Ventures’ patent lawsuits against AT&T, Sprint and T-Mobile concerning 15 patents for mobile technologies. Intellectual Ventures has received widespread media and academic attention for its use of over 1200 alleged shell companies to house its patent assets. Courtesy of Plainsite.org, a full list of approximately 2000 potential shell companies will be available on the NPE tracker. Over the next few months, IP Checkups will vet this data to remove any non-IV affiliated companies, and determine if additional IV shell companies can be found.

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Interdigital

  • Website: interdigital.com
  • Founded: 1972
  • Office(s): Wilmington, DE San Diego, CA Melville, NY King of Prussia, PA Montreal, QC
  • Contact Information: 200 Bellevue Parkway Suite 300 Wilmington, DE 19809 Phone: (302) 281-3600 Fax: (302) 281-3763
Interdigital (NASDAQ:IDCC) is a research and development company that licenses wireless digital radio-telephone systems for voice and data communications. The company’s broad patent portfolio includes standards-essential patents for 2G, 3G, 4G, and IEEE 802 related technologies. Interdigital does not manufacture its own hardware, but instead licenses its patents to mobile device manufacturers, semiconductor companies, and other equipment producers in the digital cellular space. In September 2012 Interdigital sold roughly 1,700 of its patents to Intel for $375 million. In early January, 2013 Interdigital filed a complaint with the US International Trade Commission against 3G and 4G device manufacturers Huawei, Nokia, Samsung and ZTE, alleging that these companies sell and import products that infringe on Interdigital’s patents.
Entities that use the corporate name “Interdigital” (*previously “International Mobile Machines Corporation”):
  • InterDigital Asia KK
  • InterDigital Canada Ltee
  • InterDigital Communications
  • InterDigital Finance Corporation
  • InterDigital Germany GmbH
  • InterDigital Mobilecom, Inc.
  • InterDigital Patent Corporation
  • InterDigital Technology Corporation
  • InterDigital SE Asia, Ltd.
  • InterDigital Telecom, Inc.
  • InterDigital Facility Company
  • InterDigital IP Holdings, Inc.
  • InterDigital Patent Holdings, Inc.
  • InterDigital Wireless Holdings, Inc.
Other Interdigital subsidiaries are listed below. This includes data from Interdigital’s historic SEC filings:
  • Digital Cellular Corporation
  • IPR Licensing, Inc.* (Formerly InterDigital Advanced Technologies, Inc. and Tantivy Communications, Inc.)
  • Universal Service Telephone Corp.
  • USTC Supply Corporation
  • USTC World Trade Corporation
  • Wireless Digital Networks, Inc.
  • VID SCALE, Inc.

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IPG Healthcare/ Electronics

  • Website: collercapital.com (No direct website for IPG Healthcare/Electronics)
  • Founded: 2008
  • Office(s): St. Peter Port, Geurnsey, UK
  • Contact Information: IPG Healthcare St Julian’s Avenue, St Peter Port C/O Coller Investment Management Limited, Ogier House Geurnsey, UK GY1 1WA IPG Electronics Trafalgar Court Les Banques St. Peter Port, GGX GY1
Coller Investment Management Ltd. (a subsidiary of Coller Capital) is the manager and general partner of two stealth patent funds: IPG Healthcare and IPG Electronics. Many of IPG Healthcare/Electronics patents originate from IBM and Phillips. Though Coller has yet to assert IPG patents in court, these funds generate revenue from patent licensing and sales to entities that later assert IPG patents. For instance, through late 2011 and 2012, Facebook acquired patents from IPG Electronics, which were later used in a countersuit against Yahoo in 2012. Other IPG patents have been asserted against HTC Corporation, Apple and Cisco Systems.
Entities that use the corporate name “IPG Healthcare/ Electronics”:
  • IPG Healthcare 501 Ltd
  • IPG Electronics 502 Ltd
  • IPG Electronics 503 Ltd
  • IPG Electronics 504 Ltd

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Rambus

  • Website: rambus.com
  • Founded: 1990
  • Office(s): Brecksville, OH Chapel Hill, NC San Francisco, CA Sunnyvale, CA Bangalore, India Minato-ku, Tokyo Seoul, Korea Taipei, Taiwan
  • Contact Information: 1050 Enterprise Way Suite 700 Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Phone: (408) 462-8000 Fax: (408) 462-8001
Rambus Incorporated (NASDAQ:RMBS) is a technology development and licensing company that focuses on high speed memory chips and more generally, digital electronics products and systems. The company’s main litigation and licensing efforts over the past few years have focused on standards patents in the DDR-SDRAM space. In September 2012, Rambus won a patent lawsuit against SK Hynix, entitling the company to royalty payments from SK Hynix based on RAND rates. In November, the firm lost a $4 billion antitrust lawsuit against Micron Technology Inc (NASDAQ: MU) and Hynix Semiconductor. Early January 2013, a judge barred Rambus from using 12 of its patents to demand royalties from Micron Technology, finding that Rambus engaged in a document-destruction campaign tied to intellectual-property litigation.
Entities that use the corporate name “Rambus”:
  • Rambus Delaware LLC
  • Rambus Deutschland GmbH (Germany)
  • Rambus International Ltd.
  • Rambus K.K. (Japan)
  • Rambus (Grand Cayman Islands, BWI)
  • Rambus Chip Technologies (India) Private Limited
  • Rambus Korea, Inc. (Korea)
Other Rambus subsidiaries are listed below. This includes data from Rambus’ press releases:
  • Cryptography Research

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Rockstar

  • Website: ip-rockstar.com
  • Founded: 2011
  • Office(s): Ottawa, ON Plano, TX
  • Contact Information: 515 Legget Drive Suite 300 Ottawa, Ontario K2K 3G4 Phone: (613) 576-1000
Rockstar Consortium Inc., formerly Rockstar Bidco, is an organization that licenses patents acquired from Nortel Network’s bankruptcy proceedings in 2011. The company, jointly owned by Apple, Microsoft, RIM, Ericsson and Sony, invested $4.5 billion (of which Apple provided $2.6 billion) to acquire approximately 4000 Nortel patents related to networking, communications, and internet technologies. So far, Rockstar has yet to assert its patents in lawsuits. In November 2012, Apple bought 1024 patents from Rockstar, likely in an effort to bolster its mobile communications patent portfolio in the face of ongoing litigation.
Entities that use the corporate name “Rockstar”:
  • Rockstar Bidco
  • Rockstar Consortium

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Round Rock

  • Website: roundrockresearch.com
  • Founded: 2009
  • Office(s): Mt. Kisco, NY
  • Contact Information: P.O. Box 1042 Mt. Kisco, NY 10549 Phone: (888) 651-0028 Fax: (914) 752-5531
John Desmerais, a former IP litigator at Kirkland & Ellis and current founding partner of Desmerais LLP, launched Round Rock Research after being approached by Micron Technology (NASDAQ: MU). Micron Technology, a manufacturer of dynamic random memory (DRAM) products, sold 4000 patents to Round Rock in 2009 and retained a license to use the technology. Since then, Desmerais has actively monetized the former Micron portfolio, gaining notable licensees like Apple, Samsung, and Sony. Intellectual Ventures has since hired Desmerais LLP for its own IP licensing negotiations and licenses its portfolio to Micron, suggesting a relationship between Intellectual Ventures and Round Rock Research.
Entities that use the corporate name “Round Rock”:
  • Round Rock Research LLC.

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Tessera

  • Website: tessera.com
  • Founded: 1990
  • Office(s): San Jose, CA Charlotte, NC Arcadia, CA Ballybrit, Galway, Ireland Bucarest, Romania Brasov, Romania Tel Aviv, Israel Tokyo, Japan Seoul, Korea New Taipei City, Taiwan
  • Contact Information: 3025 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA 95134 Phone: (408) 321-6000 Fax: (408) 321-8257
Tessera Technologies (NASDAQ:TSRA) develops and licenses miniaturization technologies for electronic devices, through inventions on chip-scale and wafer-level packaging, silicon-level interconnect and 3D packaging, and silent air cooling technology. Through its DigitalOptics subsidiary, Tessera also develops camera and image enhancement technologies for mobile devices and other applications. In early January, Tessera entered into a eight-year patent license agreement with South Korean semiconductor company, SK Hynix, ending an ongoing patent dispute.
Entities that use the corporate name “Tessera”:
  • Tessera Technologies, Inc.
  • Tessera Intellectual Property Corp.
  • Tessera, Inc.
  • Tessera Research LLC.
Other Tessera subsidiaries are listed below. This includes data from Tessera’s SEC filings:
  • Digital Optics Corp.
  • Invensas Corp.

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Walker Digital

  • Website: walkerdigital.com
  • Founded: 1994
  • Office(s): Stamford, CT
  • Contact Information: 2 High Ridge Park Stamford, CT 06905
Walker Digital is a privately held research, patent acquisition, and licensing company that focuses on applications and business solutions in e-commerce, gaming, publishing, retailing, education and other industries. Walker Digital has spun out several operating companies, including priceline.com. In April 2011, Walker Digital launched 15 lawsuits against more than 100 companies, including Microsoft, eBay, Amazon, Facebook, WalMart, Groupon, Apple, Sony and Google. In the following months, Walker Digital earned over $25 million dollars in licensing revenue. Many of the cases are still pending, but several suits have been dismissed with prejudice, including those against Facebook, Activision, and MasterCard. Most recently, Walker Digital’s suit against Sony settled in December 2012, with Sony backing out of the litigation (Walker Digital claimed Sony’s Blu-ray disc players infringed its media interfacing patents).
Entities that use the corporate name “Walker Digital”:
  • Walker Digital, LLC
  • Walker Digital Management, LLC
  • Walker Digital Gaming, LLC
  • Walker Digital Table Systems, LLC
  • Walker Digital Lottery, LLC
  • Walker Digital Vending, LLC

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Wi-Lan

  • Website: wi-lan.com
  • Founded: 1992
  • Office(s): Ottawa, ON Miami, FL Stamford, CT Marshall, TX
  • Contact Information: 11 Holland Avenue Suite 608 Ottawa, ON Canada K1Y 4S1 Phone: (613) 688-4900 Fax: (613) 688-4894
WiLAN Inc. (TSX:WIN) engages in the development, patent acquisition and licensing of technologies in communication and consumer electronics. WiLAN’s patent portfolio includes Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, 3G and 4G cellular technologies; DSL and DOCSIS technologies; and V-Chip technology for Digital TV. In 2012, WiLAN expanded its patent holdings in the wireless networking space through an acquisition of 40 patents and patent applications from Siemens in July, and more than 150 patents and patent applications from Alvarion Ltd (NASDAQ:ALVR) in October. In June of 2015, WiLAN announced that its subsidiary, Polaris Innovations acquired more than 7,000 patents and applications from Infineon Technologies AG, including technologies related to DRAMs, FLASH memories, semiconductor processes, semiconductor manufacturing, lithography, packaging, semiconductor circuitry and memory interfaces.
Entities that use the corporate name “Wi-LAN”:
  • Wi-LAN Capital Inc.
  • Wi-LAN International Inc.
  • Wi-LAN International Hong Kong Inc.
  • Wi-LAN International Japan Inc.
  • Wi-LAN International Taiwan Inc.
  • Wi-LAN USA, Inc.
Other Wi-LAN subsidiaries are listed below. This includes data from Wi-LAN’s website:
  • Gladios IP Inc.
  • Polaris Innovations LTD

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Defensive Patent Aggregators

RPX

  • Website: rpxcorp.com
  • Founded: 2008
  • Office(s): San Francisco, CA
  • Contact Information: One Market Plaza, Steuart Tower Suite 800 San Francisco, CA 94105 Phone: (866) 779-7641
RPX Corporation (NASDAQ:RPXC) is a spin-off of Intellectual Ventures, founded by former VPs of Licensing at Intellectual Ventures, John Amster and Geoffrey Barker. RPX is a defensive patent aggregator that buys patents or patent licenses, and then turns around and licenses these patents or patent rights to their member clients. As a result, RPX members are protected from litigation on these patents, and can defend themselves against future lawsuits by drawing upon RPX’s portfolio. RPX’s annual membership fees range from $65,000 to $6.9 million depending on the company’s operating income. RPX has pledged never to use its patents to engage in litigation. In April 2012 RPX closed a substantial deal with NPE Altitude Capital Partners (ACP), investing approximately $46 million of its own capital to acquire 500 US patents from ACP portfolio companies and dismiss 22 lawsuits against RPX member companies. In December 2012, Kodak sold its digital imaging patents to a consortium of Apple, Intellectual Ventures, and RPX – a transaction that granted 12 licensees access to Kodak’s patents: Apple, Google, Samsung, HTC, Facebook, Fujifilm, Microsoft, RIM, Adobe, Amazon, Huawei Technologies, and Shutterfly. In December 2014, RPX purchased 4000 patents from Rockstar Consortium through its RPX Clearinghouse subsidiary for $900 million. RPX Clearinghouse will license the patents to a syndicate of technology companies that include Google and Cisco Systems. RPX is making the patents available with non-exclusive licenses to all syndicate members, whose funds helped pay for the purchase. RPX also will license the patents to outside companies under fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory (FRAND) terms, and members of the Rockstar consortium will retain licenses for the patents.
Entities that use the corporate name “RPX”:
  • RPX Corporation
  • RPX-NW Acquisition LLC.
  • RPX-LV Acquisition LLC.
  • RPX Clearinghouse LLC

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Allied Security Trust

  • Website: alliedsecuritytrust.com
  • Founded: 2008
  • Office(s): Lambertville, NJ
  • Contact Information: 80 Lambert Lane, Suite 115 Lambertville, NJ 08530 Phone: (609) 397-8213 Fax: (413) 460-4811
Allied Security Trust is a non-profit membership cooperative that buys and sells patents before they reach the hands of NPEs. AST members include, but are not limited to, ARM Limited, Avaya, Google, HP, IBM, Intel, Oracle, Philips, Sony, and Research in Motion. AST operates on a decentralized model. Members use their in-house technical expertise to vet patents on the marketplace, and once a member finds a desirable patent or patent portfolio, AST coordinates a purchase bid on the patent(s) with contributions from member companies. Members can always opt-in or out of bidding. If AST successfully bids and buys the patent(s), it then operates a “catch and release” program. AST encumbers the patents with licenses to all member companies that participated or contributed to the winning AST bid, before selling the patents no more than a year later on the patent secondary market. In November 2012, AST entered into an agreement with MIPS Technologies (NASDAQ:MIPS), a leading provider of processor architectures and cores for home entertainment, networking, mobile and embedded applications. Through its acquisition vehicle, Bridge Crossing LLC, AST acquired 498 of MIPS’ total 580 patent assets for a total sum of $350 million. Allied Security Trust does not hold patents under its own name, but instead forms LLCs to acquire and license portfolios for specific investors in the LLC.
The names of AST LLC’s are listed below. This includes data from AST’s website:
  • Abraham Lane, LLC
  • Bent Light Technology, LLC
  • Black Maple, LLC
  • Blue Ladder, LLC
  • Blue Legend, LLC
  • Blue Salamander
  • Bollinger Lane, LLC
  • Bridge Crossing, LLC
  • Bright Sun Technologies
  • Cactus Flower
  • Cold Wind Enterprises
  • Cool Water
  • Costa Verdi
  • Crescent Moon, LLC
  • Derivative Enterprises
  • Full Spectrum Technologies, LLC
  • Hawthorne Heights, LLC
  • Haystack Alley, LLC
  • Honeygo, LLC
  • Jefferson Valley, LLC
  • Jenny Hill, LLC
  • Kilpauk Garden
  • Knockout Technology
  • Lady Kensington, LLC
  • Last Chance Technology
  • Liberty Lane, LLC
  • Lone Tree Hill
  • Meerkat Technology LLC
  • Mustang
  • Orange-Mango
  • Overland Enterprises LLC
  • Peripheral Vision, LLC
  • Pink Flamingo
  • Pleasant View, LLC
  • Rare Insights
  • Ratri Bajar
  • Red Acre, LLC
  • Red Feather
  • Red Fern Valley, LLC
  • Ringsoft, LLC
  • River Road Technologies LLC
  • River Works, LLC
  • Rooster Row, LLC
  • Ruby Cluster Technology
  • Sage Technology, LLC
  • Seven Circle, LLC
  • Shiftlink, LLC
  • Silent River, LLC
  • Smooth Ride
  • Spotted Leopard
  • Stature Ventures, LLC
  • Sunrise
  • Thoroughbred
  • Trey Run, LLC
  • Trifecta Technology
  • Tudor Empire, LLC
  • TurnBridge Wells, LLC
  • Tuttle Lane, LLC
  • Twister Investments, LLC

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Academic/Research Entities

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)

  • Website: csiro.au
  • Founded: 1926
  • Office(s): Across Australia
  • Contact Information: Ian Wark Laboratory Bayview Avenue Clayton VIC 3168 Australia Phone: +61 3 9545 2176
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is Australia’s national science agency. The organization has 6,500 employees at 57 different sites throughout Australia and abroad. CSIRO conducts its research through 12 divisions, the business units of the organization: Animal, Food and Health Sciences; Astronomy and Space Science; Earth Science and Resource Engineering; Ecosystem Sciences; Energy Technology; ICT Centre; Land and Water; Marine and Atmospheric Research; Materials Science and Engineering; Mathematics, Informatics, and Statistics; Plant Industry; Process Science and Engineering. CSIRO garnered attention in the United States in 2005, when it launched a years-long patent litigation campaign surrounding a fundamental wireless LAN (WiFi) patent. In April 2012, CSIRO achieved a $229 million settlement from a nine wireless device companies and chip manufacturers, including Broadcom, T-Mobile, AT&T, and Lenovo – on top of a $205 million settlement in 2009.

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Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF)

 
  • Website: warf.org
  • Founded: 1925
  • Office(s): Madison, WI
  • Contact Information: 614 Walnut Street, 13th floor Madison, WI 53726 Phone: (608) 263-2500 Fax: (608) 263-1064
The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) is the private, nonprofit technology transfer arm of University of Wisconsin-Madison. WARF patents inventions arising from UW-Madison, licenses the technologies to companies for commercialization, and returns the licensing income to the university in the form of research and building grants. Since its founding, WARF has earned over $800 million in licensing revenues and returned over $1.2 billion to UW-Madison. Notable patents in WARF’s portfolio include patents on synthetic Vitamin D in food and drugs, embryonic stem cells and non-human primate stem cells, and blood thinners Coumadin and Warfarin. In December 2012, WARF launched a patent lawsuit against WH Nutritionals and Virtus Pharmaceuticals over a patent covering calcium formate as a dietary supplement.

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