Here is a link to the paper, How Weak are Strong Patents: Patent Holdout & Smaller Technology Firms written by me and my colleague Bowman Heiden that was published in the Berkeley Law and Technology Journal.

This paper focuses on the prevalence of systematic patent holdout by large tech firms when small(er) technology firms enforce patents against them. In short, large companies prefer to use the slow moving and expensive patent litigation system rather than to take a license or settle with smaller plaintiffs. The use of these tactics to stall the process of having to pay, benefit the large tech company and hurt the smaller plaintiff in several ways outlined in the paper.